Confederate Monument Research Template

This research template provides a guide for conducting research on individual monuments in local communities. By answering the questions posed within this guide, interested parties can get a better understanding of who erected the monument, when, and why, in order to inform discussions.

Download the template.


Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory
Yale historian David Blight contemplates the effect the Civil War had on American national memory through 1913. He illustrates how selective remembering and forgetting of the war fundamentally influenced American race relations.

Ghosts of the Confederacy: Defeat, the Lost Cause and the Emergence of the New South, 1865-1913
Louisiana State University historian Gaines M. Foster explores the impact of the Civil War on white Southern society in the context of the Confederacy’s defeat. He traces the rise of Confederate memorial associations, monuments, and the Lost Cause mythology.

Dixie's Daughters: The United Daughters of the Confederacy and the Preservation of Confederate Culture (New Perspectives on the History of the South)
Karen Cox, of the University of North Carolina, Charlotte, delves into the history of the United Daughters of the Confederacy and the central role that organization played in commemorating the Civil War. Her research shows the critical role the group had on textbooks, monuments, and memory of the conflict throughout the nation.

Controversial Monuments and Memorials: A Guide for Community Leaders

Editor David Allison, Onsite Programs Manager at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science, assembles a collection of chapters that take on the tough issues that communities across America must face as white supremacy, political quagmires and visions of reconciliation with the past collide.

For further reading:

Confederate Statues and Memorialization by Catherine Clinton, W. Fitzhugh Brundage, Karen L. Cox, Gary W. Gallagher and Nell Irvin Painter

Whose Heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy by the Southern Poverty Law Center

Burying the Dead but Not the Past: Ladies' Memorial Associations and the Lost Cause by Caroline E. Janney

The Southern Past: A Clash of Race and Memory, by Fitzhugh W. Brundage

History Wars: The Enola Gay and Other Battles for the American Past, by Edward Linenthal, Tom Englehardt, eds.

Lies Across America: What our Historic Sites Get Wrong, by James W. Loewen

Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth Century America, by Kirk Savage

The Confederate Battle Flag: America’s Most Embattled Emblem, by John M. Coski

Baptized in Blood: The Religion of the Lost Cause, 1865-1920, by Charles R. Wilson

Remembering the Civil War: Reunion and the Limits of Reconciliation, by Caroline E. Janney

Memory in Black and White: Race, Commemoration, and the Post-Bellum Landscape, by Paul A. Shackel

New Georgia Encyclopedia

History and Archaeology: Confederate Monuments

History and Archaeology: Segregation

History and Archaeology: United Daughters of the Confederacy

History and Archaeology: Lost Cause Religion

In the Media

"Metro communities grapple with what to do with Confederate monuments," October 1, 2020, WSB-TV

"More than 50 Confederate monuments have been removed since Floyd's death: report," August 12, 2020, The Hill

"'This is not just about symbols': America's reckoning over Confederate monuments," August 2, 2020, USA Today

"A Confederate monument was toppled in Seattle. Why was it even there?" July 10, 2020, Seattle Pi

"As monuments fall, how does the world reckon with a racist past?" June 29, 2020, National Geographic

"DeKalb to mark its own history after Confederate monument removal," June 19, 2020, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Cities Want to Remove Toxic Monuments. But Who Will Take Them?" June 18, 2020, The New York Times

"DeKalb judge orders Confederate monument to be moved by June 26," June 12, 2020, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Confederate Monuments Are Coming Down Across The Country," June 9, 2020, Smithsonian Magazine

"George Floyd Protests Reignite Debate Over Confederate Statues," June 3, 2020, The New York Times

"Confederate Monument Being Removed After Birmingham Mayor Vows To 'Finish The Job,'" June 2, 2020, NPR

"Confederate monuments toppled, burned as protests over George Floyd's Death Continue," June 1, 2020, USA Today

"Virginia lawmakers vote to undo protections for Confederate monuments," March 9, 2020, The Hill

"Toppled but Not Gone: U.N.C. Grapples Anew with the Fate of Silent Sam," February 14, 2020, The New York Times

"Judge Voids UNC's Controversial Settlement Over Confederate Statue 'Silent Sam,'" February 12, 2020, NPR

"Prominent UNC alumni want to stop the $2.5M Silent Sam deal with Confederate group," January 29, 2020, The News & Observer

"Confederate monument in Virginia Beach should stay where it is, city group recommends," January 28, 2020, The Virginia-Pilot

"Marker notes Mobile as 'site of memory' in slave trade," December 8, 2019,

"Agency mulls Confederate monument future," December 5, 2019, Daily Journal

"'Johnny Reb' no longer welcome in Norfolk: Virginia city gets OK to move Confederate statue," October 23, 2019, USA Today

"Barred from Removing Confederate Statues, Cities Are Contextualizing Them Instead," October 7, 2019, Route Fifty

"Kehinde Wiley's Times Square Monument: That's No Robert E. Lee," September 27, 2019, The New York Times

"A Confederate statue graveyard could help bury the Old South," July 26, 2019, The Conversation

"'They were racists,': Confederate monument found vandalized in Centennial Park," June 17, 2019, The Tennessean

"Virginia denies localities authority to decide fate of Confederate monuments," January 31, 2019, The Washington Times

"Judge says Florida city can move Confederate statue," January 30, 2019, Miami Herald

"Winston-Salem's Confederate statue: A symbol of white supremacy or a memorial to Confederate sacrifice?" January 26, 2019, Winston-Salem Journal

"A Matter of Facts: Carolina Janney and Confederate monuments," January 25, 2019, Delaware Public Media

"Fate of Confederate Monuments is Stalled by Competing Legal Battles," January 20, 2019, The New York Times

"'There were black Confederates too': Bargaining with US history," January 19, 2019, Al Jazeera

"University head yanks Confederate marker, is forced out," January 15, 2019, Associated Press

"Confederate plaque removed from Texas state Capitol," January 14, 2019, The Hill

"UNC Officials recommend $5.3 million new building on campus for Silent Sam," December 3, 2018, The News & Observer

"Controversial Confederate statues remain in U.S. Capitol despite being removed elsewhere," September 19, 2018, USA Today

"Lawyer: Move trail from courthouse with Confederate monument," September 18, 2018, Associated Press

"UNC the latest college to grapple with felling of a Confederate statue amid fears of rising tension," August 31, 2018, The Washington Post

"'Silent Sam': A racist Jim Crow-era speech inspired UNC students to topple a Confederate monument on campus," August 21, 2018, The Washington Post

"'Silent Sam' Confederate Monument Is Toppled at University of North Carolina," August 21, 2018, The New York Times

"Six Artistic Visions for Replacing Confederate Monuments," August 20, 2018, Arch Daily

"One year since Baltimore's Confederate monuments were removed in the night, the issues they raised remain," August 16, 2018, The Baltimore Sun

"Stopping White Supremacists From Taking Over an American City Again," August 7, 2018, CityLab

"Where Do Confederate Monuments Go After They Come Down?" August 5, 2018, NPR

"Six Strategies for Dealing with Controversial Monuments and Memorials," June 7, 2018, Hyperallergic

"At least 110 Confederate monuments have been taken down in the last 3 years," June 4, 2018, Vice

"A Message from President Dudley Regarding the Report of the Commission on Institutional History and Community," May 18, 2018, The Columns

"Historians: Civil War statues need context, should be moved," April 14, 2018, Fox News

"In the Shadow of Statues: New Orleans Mayor Mitch Landrieu weighs in on his decision to remove four Confederate statues from city grounds in 2017," March 30, 2018, CSPAN

"ACHP Policy Statement on Controversial Commemorative Works," March 22, 2018, Advisory Council on Historic Preservation

"How I Learned About the 'Cult of the Lost Cause,'" March 12, 2018, Smithsonian Magazine

"Which Confederate statues were removed? A running list," March 11, 2018, Fox News

"Former Baltimore Confederate statue site to be rededicated as Harriet Tubman Grove on Saturday," March 9, 2018, The Baltimore Sun

"How MLK got drawn into the Confederate monument debate in NC," March 9, 2018, The News & Observer

"Editorial: Renaming, relocating Confederate memorials an acceptable solution," February 14, 2018, Savannah Morning News

"Teaching Hard History," January 31, 2018, Southern Poverty Law Center

"Half-Measures Won't Erase the Painful Past of Our Monuments," January 12, 2018, The New York Times

"Memphis pulls rug out from under two Confederate statues," December 21, 2017, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Memphis to remove Confederate statues overnight following sale of public parks," December 20, 2017, USA Today

"There Are More Imaginative Ways to Deal with Confederate Statues than Tearing Them Down," November 26, 2017, History News Network

"As monuments to the Confederacy are removed from public squares, new ones are quietly being erected," October 22, 2017, Los Angeles Times

"The South's True 'Lost Cause' Was White Supremacy," September 20, 2017, Flagpole

"When History's Losers Write the Story," September 15, 2017, The New York Times

"Which statues should stay-- and which should go," September 14, 2017, CNN

"King George III and Robert E. Lee," August 31, 2017, Institute of History, Archaeology, and Education

"Confederate Monuments Are Coming Down Across the United States. Here's a List." August 28, 2017, The New York Times

"After Charlottesville: How to Approach Confederate Memorials in Your Community," August 21, 2017, National Trust for Historic Preservation

"We Need to Move, Not Destroy, Confederate Monuments," August 20, 2017, The New York Times

"Confederate Monuments Coming Down, But Where Are They Going?" August 20, 2017, Patch

"Confederate monuments embattled," August 19, 2017, The Valdosta Daily Times

"Opinion: Context shouldn't be monuments' Lost Cause," August 18, 2017, AJC

"On Confederate monuments, the public stands with Trump," August 17, 2017, The Washington Post

"Los Angeles has a Confederate memorial problem," August 4, 2017, Los Angeles Times

"After the Fall," July 20, 2017, The Washington Post Magazine

"What can communities do with Confederate monuments? Here are 3 options," June 30, 2017, CNN

"St. Louis to Remove Its Confederate Monument," June 26, 2017, The Atlantic

"Activists: 'If you don't take those statues down then we will'," June 20, 2017, WMC Action News 5

"Statement on Confederate Memorials: Confronting Difficult History," June 19, 2017, National Trust for Historic Preservation

"Activists want statue of Jefferson Davis removed, boycott park," June 12, 2017, WMC Action News 5

"Opinion: Bringing clarity, history to monumental community decisions," June 9, 2017, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Confederate statutes remain part of Ohio Civil War landmark," June 5, 2017, Associated Press

"Question over ownership of Confederate statue delays vote for removal," May 30, 2017, KALB

"Baltimore mayor eyes removal of Confederate monuments," May 29, 2017, CNN

"Why Wiping out Monuments to the Confederacy May Not Be a Path to a More Inclusive Society: Consider the Costs of Destroying Saddam Hussein's Mythic Memorials," May 26, 2017, Zocalo Public Square

"The committed ladies of the South built many of the Confederate monuments," May 20, 2017, Timeline

"Why taking down Confederate memorials is only a first step," May 19, 2017, The Conversation

"Why the case for the removal of Confederate memorials isn’t so clear-cut," May 6, 2017, Salon

"Court Rejects Lawsuit Against Mississippi State Flag's Confederate Symbolism," April 3, 2017, NPR

"Battles Heat Up Over Confederate Symbols in the South," April 3, 2017, The Wall Street Journal

"Do Confederate Monuments Need a “Fearless Girl”?," March 28, 2017, Civil War Memory

"Georgia Lawmaker’s Proposal For ‘Confederate History Month’ Doesn’t Mention Slavery," March 24, 2017, The Huffington Post

"Maryland City to Remove Statue of Supreme Court Justice Who Said Slaves Weren’t Citizens," March 16, 2017, Time

"Civil War symposium on monuments considers 'America's Most Honored Traitor' and some 'Modest Proposals,'"February 25, 2017 Richmond Times-Dispatch

"Erasing History Makes Us More Likely to Repeat Its Mistakes," February 20, 2017, The Federalist

"Halloway: Looking Back on Calhoun," February 13, 2017, Yale Daily News

"Calhoun Alumni Torn on Renaming," February 13, 2017, Yale Daily News

"Yale’s Inconsistent Name-Dropping," February 12, 2017, The Wall Street Journal

"Yale Will Drop John Calhoun’s Name From Building," February 11, 2017, The New York Times

"Demopolis City Council addresses damaged monument," January 20, 2017, The West Alabama Watchman

"Judge Both Quick and Dead Against Peers," December 30, 2016, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Report Outlines Principles for Renaming Campus Buildings," December 2, 2016, Yale News

"Reconsideration of Memorials and Monuments," November 30, 2016, Official Blog of the American Association for State and Local History

"Not so Fast: Alexandria's Confederate Symbols Will Stay Put for Now," November 30, 2016, The Washington Post

"National Cathedral Faces Calls to Remove Windows with Confederate Generals," October 27, 2016, Religion News Service

"Commission Rejects Plan to Relocate Confederate Statue," October 21, 2016, USA Today

"A Controversial Museum Tries to Revive the Myth of the Confederacy's 'Lost Cause,'" October 20, 2016,

"Take Down 'Racist' Theodore Roosevelt Statue, Activists Tell New York Museum," October 11, 2016, The Guardian

"Rededicating a Confederate Monument to Peace," September 22, 2016, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Alexandria Will Seek to Move Confederate Statue and Rename Jefferson Davis Highway," September 17, 2016, The Washington Post

"Strapped Houston Schools Spent $1.2M to Erase Confederate Names," September 6, 2016, Fox News

"He Denied Black Citizenship. Now a City is Deciding His Statue's Fate.," September 4, 2016, The New York Times

"UT Removes Confederate Inscription That it Previously Said Would Stay," August 25, 2016, My Statesman

"Heritage Correctness: The Significance of What Happened at Vanderbilt," August 24, 2016, Crossroads

"Should Alexandria Rename Jefferson Davis Highway, Keep Other Confederate Symbols?", August 18, 2016, The Washington Post

"Vanderbilt to Pay $1.2 Million to Remove 'Confederate' From Hall," August 15, 2016, The Wall Street Journal

"Where the Confederacy is Rising Again," August 10, 2016, Politico Magazine

"Will an Alabama Confederate Monument damaged in collision with police car be repaired?," July 21, 2016,

"UPDATED: DPD officer strikes downtown monument in early morning accident," July 17, 2016, The West Alabama Watchman

"What Robert E. Lee Can Teach Us About Confederate Memorials," June 11, 2016, CNN

"Washington National Cathedral to Remove Confederate Battle Flags from its Windows," June 9, 2016, The Washington Post

"Racism is not a Teaching Tool," May 30, 2016, The Chronicle of Higher Education

"House Votes to Restrict Confederate Flag in National Cemeteries," May 19, 2016, The Hill

"The South's Confederate-monument problem is not going away," May 8, 2016, The Washington Post

"Commentary on Civil War monuments: 'The past is always more complicated than it seems'," May 1, 2016, The Buckhead Reporter

"Facing Up to the Deplorable Past," May 2016, Perspectives on History

"The Stubborn Persistence of Confederate Monuments," April 26, 2016, The Atlantic

Follow-Up: "The Stubborn Persistence of Confederate Monuments, Cont'd," April 28, 2016, The Atlantic

"Tug-of-War Over Confederate Monuments Rages On," April 17, 2016, The Chicago Tribune

"Life with Gracie: How I, a Black Woman, Could Advocate Keeping Confederate Monuments," March 18, 2016, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Momentum to Remove Confederate Symbols Slows or Stops," March 13, 2016, The New York Times

"McAuliffe vetoes bill to prevent removal of Confederate memorials," March 10, 2016, Richmond Times-Dispatch

"Harvard Law to Abandon Crest Linked to Slavery," March 5, 2016, The New York Times

"Confederate Monuments: Should they stay or should they go?," March 4, 2016, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Southern Towns Wrestle with Signs of Segregated Past," February 10, 2016, The Washington Post

"Recast in Stone," February 4, 2016, The Economist

“South Carolina Faces the High Cost of Curating History’s Dustbin,” December 27, 2015, New York Times

"Making a Home in the Shadow of Confederate Symbols," October 19, 2015, NPR

“Baltimore Task Force Begins Review of Confederate Monuments,” September 17, 2015, Baltimore Sun

“Civil War Trust: Don’t Erase History,” September 4, 2015, Washington Post

“Editorial: What to Do with Confederate Monuments,” July 18, 2015, Chicago Tribune

"The Confederacy’s Final Retreat,” July 6, 2015, The New Yorker

“Why Do People Believe Myths about the Confederacy? Because Our Textbooks and Monuments Are Wrong,” July 2, 2015, Chicago Tribune

“What This Cruel War Was Over,” June 22, 2015, The Atlantic

“We Can Learn from History,” October 30, 2013, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Confederate History Is About Race," April 14, 2010,

In the Media: Atlanta Monuments

"Opinion: A monumental miscalculation over Confederacy's memorials," June 20, 2020, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Confederate monuments: A chance to reassess the past with perspective of today," June 15, 2020, Saporta Report

“Atlanta Confronts Its Confederate Past,” October 2, 2019, US News & World Report

“There’s a new way to deal with Confederate monuments: Signs that explain their racist history,” September 22, 2019, The Washington Post

“Barred From Removing Confederate Monument, County Adds Context Instead,”
September 22, 2019, NPR

"The future of America’s past: Should we ‘explain’ Confederate statues?"
August 22, 2019, The Christian Science Monitor

"Atlanta NAACP criticizes markers surrounding Confederate monuments," August 21, 2019, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Atlanta's confederate monuments: how do ‘context markers’ help explain racism?" August 3, 2019, The Guardian

"Atlanta to add context about racism to historic monuments," August 1, 2019, Associated Press

"Atlanta installing markers to give context to Confederate monuments," July 26, 2019, WSB-TV

"Atlanta erecting markers about slavery next to Confederate monuments," July 24, 2019, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Plan to add markers to Atlanta's Confederate monuments hits snag," April 17, 2019, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Blocked from taking Confederate statues down, Atlanta, Birmingham, Memphis try other ideas," February 12, 2019, USA Today

"Vandals targeting Confederate monument also paint cannons on square," February 4, 2019, Decaturish

"These Atlanta neighbors no wanted to live on Confederate Avenue. Here's what they did about it," January 20, 2019, CNN

"Confederate Avenue is gone. Will other rebel-named roads meet the same fate?" January 18, 2019, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Rebel monuments take different route than felled Confederate Avenue," November 26, 2018, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Wincing words from some Atlantans on push to rename Confederate Avenue," September 21, 2018, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"'Contextualize' Buckhead's Confederate monument, History Center head says," September 2, 2018, Buckhead Reporter

"Atlanta effort to rename Confederate Avenue moves forward," August 14, 2018, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"What became of the report on Atlanta's Confederate symbols? Very little." July 19, 2018, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Photos: Confederate memorials in metro Atlanta," July 13, 2018, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

Advisory Committee on City of Atlanta Street Names and Monuments Associated with the Confederacy Final Report

"Panel: Remove some Confederate street names in Atlanta," November 21, 2017, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Mayor Kasim Reed On Atlanta's Confederate Monuments," November 17, 2017, WABE

"Atlanta mayor's committee determining which Confederate monuments stay or go," November 14, 2017, WSB

"Confederate icons to come down in Atlanta, pending support from city council, mayor," November 13, 2017, Saporta Report

"Committee on Confederate monuments makes recommendations," November 13, 2017, Fox 5 Atlanta

"Atlanta's Confederate icons: Debating their fate," November 1, 2017, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

Advisory Committee on City of Atlanta Street Names and Monuments Associated with the Confederacy, Presentation from November 1st Meeting, November 1, 2017, Atlanta City Staff

"City of Atlanta Announces Confederate Monuments Advisory Committee Meeting Schedule," October 27, 2017, City of Atlanta, GA

In the Media: Stone Mountain

"Stone Mountain Park carving faces increasing calls to be removed," July 9, 2020, Fox News

"Demonstrators in Stone Mountain demand Removal of Confederate Monuments," June 18, 2020, Decaturish

"Renaming of Stone Mountain street linked to KKK could banish stigma," October 21, 2019, WSB

"Stone Mountain: The Largest Confederate Monument Problem in the World," October 18, 2018, The New York Times

"In the Shadow of Stone Mountain," May 4, 2018, Smithsonian Magazine

"Stone Mountain: A Monumental Dilemma," February 10, 2018, Southern Poverty Law Center

Condensed History of the Stone Mountain Carving, September 2017, Atlanta History Center staff

"Opinion: Really understanding Stone Mountain's history," September 29, 2017, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Stone Mountain: The ugly past- and fraught future- of the biggest Confederate monument," September 19, 2017, The Washington Post

"Elliott Brack: Move Confederate Monuments to Stone Mountain Park," September 6, 2017, Marietta Daily Journal

"What Will Happen to Stone Mountain, America's Largest Confederate Memorial?" August 22, 2017, Smithsonian Magazine

"Stone Mountain poses another (huge) test for Confederate symbols," August 21, 2017, The Seattle Times

"Opinion: Stone Mountain carving is heritage... warts and all," August 15, 2017, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

"Should the Confederate Carving on Georgia's Stone Mountain Stay Up As A Reminder of History?," July 31, 2015, The Los Angeles Times

In the Media: Charlottesville

"As Richmond's Confederate statues come down, Charlottesville's remaining standing," July 2, 2020, WTOP

"A stolen slave auction plaque shook Charlottesville. But the confession was the real shock." February 11, 2020, The Washington Post

"Two women lead a free tour of Charlottesville's Confederate monuments each month. A new website lets everyone listen." August 20, 2019, The Washington Post

"Charlottesville Confederate Statues are Protected by State Law, Judge Rules," May 1, 2019, The New York Times

"The Statue at the Center of Charlottesville's Storm," August 13, 2017, The New York Times

"Why Charlottesville?" August 12, 2017, The Atlantic

"I'm a Progressive Mayor and Here's Why I Voted No on Removing My City's Confederate Statues," May 24, 2017, The Washington Post

"‘We Have to Repudiate It’: A City Confronts White Nationalist Protests," May 15, 2017, The New York Times

"Charlottesville, Virginia, Council Votes to Remove Robert E. Lee Statue: Report," February 8, 2017, Nola

"Charlottesville Mayor Changes Position, Agrees With Confederate Statue Removal," April 18, 2017, NBC News

In the Media: Dallas Monuments

"Final Statue of Dallas Confederate Monument at Pioneer Park Removed,"June 24, 2020, CBS News

"Confederate monument in Dallas’ Pioneer Park can come down, appeals court rules," June 13, 2020, Dallas Morning News

"City Of Dallas Asks Texas Supreme Court To Allow For Immediate Removal Of Confederate Monument," June 10, 2020, CBS News

“Robert E. Lee Statue removed from Dallas finds new home in West Texas,” September 21, 2019, Fox News

“Dallas’ Robert E. Lee Statue Has Landed at Black Jack’s Crossing Near Terlingua,” September 20, 2019, Dallas Magazine

"What Should Happen to Confederate Statues? A City Auctions One for $1.4 Million," June 22, 2019, The New York Times

"Support Grows for Keeping Confederate Monument Downtown," March 21, 2018, NBC 5

"A memorial honors a cause and Robert E. Lee's cause was based on slavery," August 9, 2017, Dallas News

"Symbolic of the city's tortured past, Confederate Monuments can serve as teaching tools," August 9, 2017, Dallas News

"Dallas, it's time to bring down old Confederate monuments, and our mayor looks ready to do it," July 18, 2017, Dallas News

In the Media: Richmond Monuments

"Richmond judge dismisses one Confederate monument lawsuit, allows another to stand," August 3, 2020, The Washington Post

"Judge blocks removal of more Confederate monuments in Richmond," July 9, 2020, WTOP

"Soldiers and Sailors statue adds to growing list of downed monuments in former Confederate capital," July 8, 2020, NBC News

"Richmond Mayor Stoney introduces resolution to remove city-owned Confederate monuments immediately," July 1, 2020, Roanoke Times

"Protestors Topple Statue of Jefferson Davis on Richmond's Monument Avenue," June 11, 2020, The New York Times

"Northam to announce plans to remove Richmond's iconic statue of Robert E. Lee," June 3, 2020, The Washington Post

"'Monument Avenue' Review: What to Do with Richmond's Confederate Statues," May 14, 2019, The Wall Street Journal

"Monument Avenue Commission Report," July 2, 2018

"As Richmond's Confederate statues go, so might the South's," February 11, 2018, USAToday

"In the former capital of the Confederacy, a struggle over history," July 31, 2017, The Globe and Mail

"Statues to Confederacy in its ex-capital spur soul-searching," July 21, 2017, Associated Press

"Mayor Stoney: Diversity, context needed on Monument Avenue," June 22, 2017, WTVR

"Richmond mayor vows to confront tributes to Southern Civil War figures," June 22, 2017, The Washington Post

"What Richmond Has Gotten Right About Interpreting Its Confederate History," May 18, 2017, Smithsonian Magazine

"The Meaning of Our Confederate ‘Monuments,'" May 15, 2017, The New York Times

"Williams: Tell the story behind Richmond's Confederate monuments," February 27, 2017, Richmond Times-Dispatch

In the Media: New Orleans Monuments

“What Will New Orleans Do with the Confederate Statues?” May 21, 2017, Associated Press

"With Lee Statue’s Removal, Another Battle of New Orleans Comes to a Close,” May 20, 2017, National Public Radio

“Robert E. Lee Topples from His Pedestal,” May 19, 2017, The Atlantic

“Mitch Landrieu’s Speech on the Removal of Confederate Monuments in New Orleans,” May 23, 2017, The New York Times

“What Should We Do With Confederate Monuments?” May 14, 2017, The New York Times

“The Battle Over Confederate Monuments in New Orleans,” May 12, 2017, The New Yorker

“Protests against removing Confederate monuments are not really about history,” May 12, 2017, The New York Times

"Monuments of White Supremacy," May 9, 2017, The New York Times

"Tempers Flare Over Removal of Confederate Statues in New Orleans," May 7, 2017, The New York Times

"Vandals strike P.G.T. Beauregard statue near City Park," May 2, 2017, The Times-Picayune

"Is Removing Confederate Monuments Like Erasing History?," April 25, 2017, NBC News

"New Orleans removes a tribute to ‘the lost cause of the Confederacy’ — with snipers standing by," April 24, 2017, The Washington Post

"We're supposed to keep Confederate monuments because past generations wanted them?," March 30, 2017, The Times-Picayune

"Amid Toppled Confederate Statues, Andrew Jackson Stands Tall," March 24, 2017, The Wall Street Journal

"Reverence and Rage: Southerners Battle Over Relics of the Confederacy," March 17, 2016, NPR

"Appeals court rules that Confederate monuments can come down in New Orleans," March 7, 2017 The Christian Science Monitor

"New Orleans Can Remove Confederate Monuments, Appeals Court Rules," March 7, 2017, CNN

"Five Places Where Confederate Monuments Have Recently Disappeared (or Soon Will)," August 19, 2016,

"Protest Against Confederate Monuments Hits White Linen Nights," August 6, 2016, The Times-Picayune

“Federal Judge Allows New Orleans to Proceed with Confederate Monument Removal,” January 26, 2016, The Times-Picayne

“Confronting the Future of New Orleans’ Confederate Past,” January 14, 2016, Time

In the Media: University of Mississippi

"Ole Miss expected to relocate Confederate monument that stands at university entrance: report," June 15, 2020, The Hill

Chancellor's Advisory Committee on History and Context: Implementation, March 2, 2018

"The Confederacy still haunts the campus of Ole Miss," November 16, 2017, NBC News

"Ole Miss Edges Out of Its Confederate Shadow, Gingerly," August 9, 2017, The New York Times

"University of Mississippi Will Remove Name of White Supremacist From Building," July 7, 2017, The Wall Street Journal

"Group Sues to Remove Plaque at Ole Miss Confederate Statue," October 14, 2016, Mississippi Today

"University of Mississippi Bans Confederate 'Anthem' Dixie," August 24, 2016, The Guardian

"UM Takes Key Steps to Address History and Context," June 10, 2016, University of Mississippi News

"UM History Faculty Seek Confederate Plaque Revision," April 4, 2016, The Clarion-Ledger

"Plaque on UM Confederate Statue to Undergo Revision?," March 30, 2016, The Oxford Eagle

"Letter from Chancellor: Creation of Chancellor's Advisory Committee on History and Context," March 11, 2016, The University of Mississippi

In the Media: Monuments Abroad

"British Protesters Throw Statue of Slave Trader Into Bristol Harbor," June 10, 2020, Smithsonian Magazine

"Germany: Ugly anti-Semitic remnant at center of court battle," January 17, 2020, Associated Press

"Liverpool street sign plan to highlight city's slavery links," January 10, 2020, BBC News

"Ukraine tore down its Lenin statues. The hard part is filling in the spaces left behind.," November 16, 2018, The Washington Post

"Bristol MP calls for slave trader's statue to be removed from city because it offends black residents," October 12, 2018, The Telegraph

"Statue must tell true story of Soviet 'Hero', say Czechs," August 5, 2018, The Guardian

"An English City Grapples With the Slave-Trading Past of its Most Celebrated Figure," March 28, 2018, NPR

"Paint poured over Captain Cook amid controversy over date of Australia Day," January 25, 2018, The Telegraph

"French authors of 'colonial Paris' guide hope to spark Rhodes Must Fall-style movement," December 3, 2017, The Telegraph

"Indigenous leader calls for 'friendship and peace' ahead of Cornwallis protest," July 12, 2017, CBC News

"Should historical place names be changed to fit modern values? Historians debate," May 31, 2017, History Extra

"Don’t Delete the Generalissimo, Contextualize Him," May 10, 2017, The News Lens

"Defenders of Colston are the ones airbrushing the past, says Bristol University academic," April 30, 2017, The Bristol Post

"Indian state planning law to 'erase' all remnants of 'cruel and humiliating' British colonial rule," March 31, 2017, The Telegraph

"What’s in a Name? A Lot When We’re Admiring Murders and Murderers," March 11, 2017, The Guardian

"Academics Want 'Racist' Gandhi's Statue Removed from Ghana's Oldest University," September 23, 2016, Quartz Africa

"Captain Cook Statues Defaced in NZ Amid Calls for Maori Chiefs to Take His Place," July 30, 2016, The Guardian

"Soviet Troop Monuments in Poland to be Moved to New Museum," June 28, 2016, BBC

"The Soviet Union is Gone. Why do Lenin Statues Remain?" June 14, 2016, The New York Times

"Once Taboo Monuments Now Revived in Berlin," April 28, 2016, Deutsche Welle

"Voices: Lenin Statue is Gone, but Division Remains in Ukraine," April 10, 2016, USA Today

"Stalin, Russia's New Hero," March 13, 2016, The New York Times

"Rhodes Must Fall? A Question of When Not If," February 17, 2016, History Today

"Oxford Rhodes Statue Row is Part of Global Protest," January 29, 2016, BBC

Nationwide Monument Databases, Lists, and Catalogues

"Whose Heritage? Public Symbols of the Confederacy?"

"Commemorative Landscapes of North Carolina"

"Civil War Monuments in Ohio"

"Georgia Statues, Monuments, and Historical Plaques"

"National Park Service Civil War Monuments Database"

"National Register of Historic Places Multiply Property Submission: Civil War Monuments in Kentucky, 1865-1935"


Civil War Memory: The Online Home of Kevin M. Levin

Civil Discourse: A Blog of the Long Civil War Era

Whig Hill, Christopher A. Graham

See Everything!